Before discussing this topic, I want to clarify that both software testing has unique benefits in development projects.

You must hear about unit testing and functional testing from many developers, and they think it is a waste of time. But that’s not true.

Testing is essential to creating high-quality, bug-free applications.

Both functional testing and unit testing are the base of the testing procedure. Both testings play an important role in software development.

With the help of this blog, functional testing vs unit testing, I want you guys to understand the various aspects of unit testing and functional testing. You will know the basics of both the testing and what type of defects they report.

Let’s dive in.

What Is Unit Testing?

Unit testing is a test that helps to eliminate bugs in the early stage of software development. It is popular among many organizations.

As the name suggests, every component or unit is tested separately to ensure the code is working smoothly in this type of testing. 

The main aim of unit testing is to keep an eye on the software code and ensure whether they are performing as expected or not.

Unit testing helps isolate the code section, check whether the code is correct, find and fix bugs in early-stage, help developers understand the code base, and allow them to make changes asap.

Unit testing is also known as White box testing. It is performed in the early stages to make sure that bugs cannot pass further. It is necessary to conduct unit testing because it becomes more expensive to fix bugs in later stages, so it is a cost-effective activity that helps companies to save money.

The Objectives Of Unit Testing Are:

  • To isolate each part of the program.
  • To find bugs in the early stage of software development.
  • To test every unit separately.
  • To check the correctness of the code.
  • To help developers with the code and allow them to make changes quickly.

Advantages Of Unit Testing:

  • The bugs are found earlier, so less compound error occurs.
  • It is a quick and easy test to run.
  • Errors are detected in the early stage, which reduces expenses.
  • It helps to improve the internal code.
  • It enhances the quality of code.
  • Unit testing provides the documentation of the entire system.
  • The debugging process can be simplified by unit testing.
  • Unit testing allows developers to think through the design of the software.

What Is Functional Testing?

A functional test aims to check if the system functions as it should and if it meets the user and business requirements. In this test, the tester has an expected result of how the software should perform and compares it with the actual result.

Functional testing is also known as Black-box testing and therefore refers only to the external aspects, so there is no need for internal code knowledge.

Functional tests are performed after the development stage is over in the software development. The Quality analyst team executes a functional test. There are a few types of functional tests that testing teams regularly use, such as integration testing, regression testing, sanity testing, and so on.

The Objectives Of Functional Testing Are:

  • It relies solely on the requirements rather than anticipation.
  • Check whether the previous software testing was fruitful and that all bugs are fixed.
  • To make sure that the outcome meets the user’s requirement.
  • To prevent errors.

Advantages Of Functional Testing:

  • It ensures the customer requirements are fully met.
  • It produces a defect-free product.
  • Improving the security of the software.
  • The test simulates a real-life scenario.
  • It provides security and safety.
  • The risk associated with the product is reduced.
  • It ensures the proper working of all the functionalities of the product.

Difference Between Unit Testing And Functional Testing

  • Unit testing is easy to write and execute. On the other hand, functional testing is quite complex compared to unit testing.
  • Unit testing is usually done with the same coding language, while functional testing doesn’t need the same coding language.
  • In unit testing, code testing is done in isolation, while in functional testing, testing is done as per user requirements.
  • Developers conduct unit testing while testers do functional testing.
  • Unit testing uses White box testing. On the contrary functional testing uses black-box testing.
  • The number of test cases in unit testing is higher than in other testing. On the flip side, it is lower than unit and integration testing in functional testing.

What Is The Purpose Of Both The Testing Types?

Unit Testing

It is a testing method in which units of code are tested separately. The main purpose behind unit testing is to test the smallest parts of an API and check if they work correctly in isolation.

From the developer’s point of view, the reason behind conducting unit testing is to create a robust codebase at a low cost. 

Functional Testing

In functional testing, the tester needs to verify the output based on the customer’s requirements. The main purpose of functional testing is to check the entire software and hardware from the front end to the back end. They also ensure that all functions are working as expected.

Instead of telling the errors and their location, functional testing just tells you that something is wrong either with the test or a browser. Functional testing follows end to end testing, so it cannot tell what is broken.

How Do Unit Testing And Functional Testing Improve Software Quality?

Unit Testing

You may sometimes write lengthy codes that are hard to remember for a long time. After a few months, it must be difficult for you to work with the same code again. In this scenario, unit testing helps you capture your original code and fix it later. The bugs in code are identified straight away, so there is less re-work and re-test.

Functional Testing

Functional testing makes sure that the application works as expected. Typically rigorous tests for ensuring the critical app’s functionality, such as user logins, signups, payments, and all the essential user workflows, behave as expected.

FAQs

1. What are the goals of unit testing?

The major goal of unit testing is to ensure the sustainable growth of the software project. In unit testing, each unit is tested in isolation.

2. What is unit testing in software engineering?

Unit testing is a testing technique through which individual units or components of the software are tested to determine whether they are sustainable to use or not.

3. What is the difference between unit testing and system testing?

Unit testing is work on the module specification. It requires one module at a time. On the other hand, system testing is done to check whether the product meets the specified needs. 

Conclusion

In recent times, people have wanted companies to develop the highest quality software. It compels companies to incorporate testing as a part of the development process.

Both testings have different purposes; they aren’t interchangeable. 

Unit testing is fast and achieves error-free code in this competitive market. The functional testing is a bit complex and identifies the defects against a business document and produces a perfect product.

The main aim of testing is to deliver a quality product with the right balance between unit testing and functional testing.

I hope this blog post has given you a clear idea about Unit testing vs. functional testing!

Happy Testing!